Torma procession in Barkhor during Monlam Torgya

Torma procession in Barkhor during Monlam Torgya

2001. (Film negative)

Image for comparison


Raw Image

Key Information


Hugh E. Richardson


Hugh Richardson

Date of Photo

March 6th 1937


Lhasa > Barkhor (from Doring house)

Accession number


Image Dimensions

54 x 43 mm

Procession taking the Torma (gtor ma) away from the Jokhang in an anti-clockwise direction along the Bhakhor during Monlam Torgya. The south west corner of the Jokhang may be seen on the left of the photograph. The streets are lined with mainly monk spectators.

Further Information


Ritual Activity

Photographic Process

Negative film nitrate

Date Acquired

Donated August 2001

Donated by

The executors of the estate of Hugh E. Richardson


Hugh E. Richardson

Manual Catalogues -

Manual Catalogues - Notes on negative album - '1' 'Chipsha: Dzonggyab [rdzong rgyab]: Torgyap [gtor rgyag] ----- [illegible]' is written in white in Richardson's hand. Notes inside negative album: white label with Richardson's name and address in St. Andrews. [KC 8/7/2006]

Manual Catalogues -

Manual Catalogues - Notes on negative index - Folio 58 'GTOR MA'. [KC 17/7/2006]

Manual Catalogues -

Manual Catalogues - Richardson's Hand List: Negative album No.1 nos. 53-58 "The gtor-ma (or zor ) is brought out, and carried southwards past the Jo-khang. No 56 is a beggar boy with a dog skin on a string who follows the gtor-ma " [KC 21/7/2006]

Technical Information - This image seems to have been taken with a Zeiss Super Ikonta C camera. This was a 6x9 format camera but came with a film plane mask that enabled 6x4.5 images to be taken. This enabled 16 images to be taken on a roll of 120 film as opposed to 8 without the mask [MS 6/10/2005]

Other Information - Background: See Hugh E. Richardson, Ceremonies of the Lhasa Year , 1993, London: Serindia Publications, pp 39-49 for a description of the Monlam Torgya ( mon lam gtor rgyag) ceremony. "The ceremony of Monlam Torgya is the longest and the most spectacular event of the New Year celebrations. It is the high point of the Yaso's tenure of office and the day for which the Tsisher was the preparation. (p. 39) ... the torma, in which all evil influences are stored, is brought out ... . It is a tall pyramidal structure with fretwork wings surmounted by a grinning skull mask with a spear and a small umbrella on top. The standards and torma are taken off down the Barkor ..." (p.45) A small party of monks wearing brightly coloured brocade shawls ... come into the forecourt. Like all Namgye Tratsang monks they are noticeaby good-looking with shining clean faces and arms. Eight, carrying silver censers and two with silver ritual vesses, form two ranks facing each other. Their leader, the officiating priest, performs a hieratic dance between and around their ranks chanting a prayer of exorcism and gesturing solemnly with his bell and dorje while the monks around the court keep up a rhythmic accompaniment with drums and cymbals. Finally the officiant is handed a silver chalice containing a red-coloured ball of dough. An attendant monk pours holy water over it from a silver ewer and after an incantation the priest throws it out. This is done twice more after which the celebrants go back into the Jokhang and the other monks surrounding the square proceed down the Barkor with drums beating and cymbals clashing, following the torma towards the south-west of the Tsuklakhang. ... (p.46) [KC 21/7/2006]

Other Information - Dates

Other Information - Dates: In a letter to his parents dated November 6th 1936, Hugh Richardson commented that he was investigating buying a new Zeiss Super Ikonta camera [Hugh Richardson Manuscript Archive, Bodleian Library, MS. Or. Richardson 3 folio 46]. On March 29th 1937 he comments in a further letter to his parents that it would probaby be better to use the larger image frame [MS Or Richardson 3 folio 82]. This has assisted the dating of this image to 1937 [MS 6/10/2005]

For Citation use:
The Tibet Album. "Torma procession in Barkhor during Monlam Torgya" 05 Dec. 2006. The Pitt Rivers Museum. <>.

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