Mani stones on lingkhor in Lhasa

Mani stones on lingkhor in Lhasa

1998.131.214.1 (Film negative)

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Raw Image

Key Information


Frederick Spencer Chapman


Frederick Spencer Chapman

Date of Photo

September 8th 1936


Lhasa > Lingkhor

Accession number


Image Dimensions

80 x 111 mm

A cairn of mani stones with multiple images of the Buddha. An animal skull with horns, probably that of a wild yak or drong, has been placed at the base of the cairn. A mantra has been carved on the animal skull. The cairn has been built up against a hillside and many flat stones and slates, which have been carved and painted, have been piled up

Further Information

Photographic Process

Negative film nitrate

Date Acquired

Donated 1994

Donated by

Faith Spencer Chapman


British Diplomatic Mission to Lhasa 1936-37

Photo also owned by

Frederick Spencer Chapman

Previous Catologue Number

C.4.5 [view film roll]

Previous Pitt Rivers Museum Number


Other Information

In Negative - The negative has number '5' printed on it. This refers to the fact that this was negative number 5 in the series identified as 'C/4' in Chapman's handlist of images taken whilst on the mission to Lhasa [see PRM Manuscript archive]. [MS 17/3/2005]

Technical Information - Technical Information - This image was taken with a quarter plate Zeiss Nixe film or film pack camera as the negative is quarter-plate sized. See Chapman
Lhasa The Holy City, London: Chatto & Windus, 1938; reprint, London: Readers Union Ltd., 1940, p.246 for a description of the still and cine cameras that Chapman used as Mission photographer [MS 25/2/2005]

Manual Catalogues -

Manual Catalogues - Caption in Chapman's hand-written list of negatives made whilst on the Mission to Lhasa, 1936-7 [See PRM Manuscripts Collection]: 'Horns and rock with paintings' [MS 13/03/2006]

Other Information - Cultural Background

Other Information - Cultural Background: The skull and horns probably come from a yak or drong , wild yak [TS 21/1/2005]

Other Information - Related Images

Other Information - Related Images: This image is one of a group of negatives prefixed by the figure 'C.4' by Chapman [see handlist of mission photographs in PRM Manuscript Collection]. This group contained images of soldiers, people turning prayer wheels, rock paintings, Dr Morgan and the mission hospital, a beggar with a skull and drum, and many scenes in and around Sera monastery, including monks outside the monastery, meat sellers and water tanks. They all seem to have been taken during September and early October 1936. However, this image also relates to a group of images taken on the Lingkhor that seem almost certainly to have been taken on September 8th 1936 [MS 11/8/2005]

For Citation use:
The Tibet Album. "Mani stones on lingkhor in Lhasa" 05 Dec. 2006. The Pitt Rivers Museum. <>.

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